Melosh's research is focused on developing methods to detect and control chemical processes on the nanoscale, to create materials that are responsive to their local environment. The research goal incorporates many of the hallmarks of biological adaptability, based on feedback control between cellular receptors and protein expression. Similar artificial networks may be achieved by fabricating arrays of nanoscale (<100 nm) devices that can detect and influence their local surroundings through ionic potential, temperature, mechanical motion, capacitance, or electrochemistry. These devices are particularly suited as 'smart' biomaterials, where multiple surface-cell interactions must be monitored and adjusted simultaneously for optimal cell adhesion and growth. Other interests include precise control over self-assembled materials, and potential methods to monitor the diagnostics of complicated chemical systems, such as the effect of drug treatments within patients.